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BIONDO, Giovanni del BIONDO, Giovanni del 
Italian painter, Florentine school (active 1356-1392 in Florence)
Birch, Thomas Birch, Thomas 
English-born American Painter, 1779-1851 American painter of English birth. He was one of the most important American landscape and marine painters of the early 19th century. He moved to America in 1794 with his father William Birch (1755-1834), a painter and engraver from whom he received his artistic training. The family settled in Philadelphia, where William, armed with letters of introduction from Benjamin West to leading citizens of that city, became a drawing-master. Early in their American careers both Birches executed cityscapes, several of which were engraved. Thomas contributed a number of compositions to The City of Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania, North America, as it Appeared in the Year 1800 (1800), a series of views conceived by the elder Birch in obvious imitation of comparable British productions. An English sensibility is also apparent in the many paintings of country estates executed by father and son in the early 19th century These compositions, along with such portrayals of important public edifices in and near Philadelphia as Fairmount Waterworks
Birch, William Russell Birch, William Russell 
American, 1755-1834
Bischoff, Franz Bischoff, Franz 
Austrian, practiced mainly in America, 1864-1929 was an American artist known primarily for his beautiful floral paintings and California landscapes. He was born in Bomen, Austria on January 9, 1864 and as a young teenager immigrated to the United States where he became a naturalized citizen. While in Europe, his early training was focused upon applied design, watercolor and ceramic decorations.After having lived and worked in New York, Fostoria, Ohio and Dearborn, Michigan, Franz Bischoff decided to visit California in 1900 and ultimately chose to settle in Los Angeles in 1906. Shortly after arriving, he started making arrangements to design and build a large Italian Renaissance style home in Pasadena that also became his studio. This landmark home was completed in 1908. Inspired by the California countryside, Bischoff set attempted to capture the area's brilliant light and diverse landscapes. Spending less time with ceramic painting, Bischoff painted local farms, fishing wharfs, and coastal landscapes. Recognized during his career for use of color and vivid composition, his paintings always displayed reverence for nature.
Blake, William Blake, William 
William Blake was an English poet, painter was born November 28, 1757, in London William Blake started writing poems as a boy, many of them inspired by religious visions. Apprenticed to an engraver as a young man, Blake learned skills that allowed him to put his poems and drawings together on etchings, and he began to publish his own work. Throughout his life he survived on small commissions, never gaining much attention from the London art world. His paintings were rejected by the public
BLANCHARD, Jacques BLANCHARD, Jacques 
French Baroque Era Painter, 1600-1638 He trained with his maternal uncle Nicolas Bollery (c. 1550/60-1630) from 1613 to 1618. He then set off for Italy but stopped at Lyon to work in the studio of Horace Le Blanc. Le Blanc left for Paris in 1623, and Blanchard is known to have finished a number of his works left in Lyon, including perhaps the Virgin and Child with a Bishop and a Woman Holding a Baby (Lyon, St Denis). At the end of October 1624 he reached Rome in the company of his brother Jean Blanchard, remaining there until April or May 1626. He was then in Venice until 1628, when he returned to Lyon via Turin.
Blanchet, Louis-Gabriel Blanchet, Louis-Gabriel 
French Painter, 1705-1772 French painter, active in Rome. He won second place in the Prix de Rome competition in 1727 and thereafter settled in Rome, where he enjoyed the patronage of Nicolas Vleughels, Director of the Acad?mie de France, and the Duc de Saint-Aignan (1684-1776), who at that time was French Ambassador to the Holy See. In 1752 Blanchet painted the Vision of Constantine (Paris, Louvre), a copy of Giulio Romano's fresco in the Sala di Costantino in the Vatican. He was, however, principally a portrait painter. His portrait of Tolozan de Montfort (1756; Lyon, Mus. B.-A.) is a fine example of his elegant, rather nervous style and his distinctive use of colour. In the same year Blanchet executed a portrait of the contemporary painter Johann Mandelberg (1730-86; Copenhagen, Kon. Dan. Kstakad.). Other surviving works of his include St Paul (signed and dated 1757; Avignon, Mus. Calvet) and his full-length portrait of P. P. Lesueur and E. Jacquier (1772; Nantes, Mus. B.-A.).
Blarenberghe Blarenberghe 
was the name of a dynasty of painters, originally from French Flanders but the most famous descendants lived in Lille and Paris in France. They were all descendants from Joris van Blarenberghe (1612-1670). The first two painters were Hendrick van Blarenberghe (1646-1712) and his son Jacques-Guillaume van Blarenberghe (1679-1742). Their style was still heavily influenced by the Flemish Baroque style. Jacques-Guillaume had two painting sons, Louis-Nicolas Van Blarenberghe (15 July 1716 - 1 May 1794) and Henri Desire van Blarenberghe (1734-1812). Louis-Nicolas had a son who was also a painter and with who he often collaborated: Henri-Joseph van Blarenberghe (24 November 1750 - 1 December 1826). Together with his father, they stayed at the Palace of Versailles, where they worked as miniaturists for the high society of their day. They were especially famous for their paintings on snuff boxes. Louis-Nicolas also worked as official campaign painter of the French court, following the French army as a war reporter. Two of his daughters, Catherine-Henriette and Isabelle, were chamber maids to the children of the French kings. The works of Louis-Nicolas and Henri-Joseph were collected in profusion in the 19th century by the Rothschild family. There is a collection of their work on public display at Waddesdon Manor. Henri-Joseph painted, besides the miniatures, mainly Panoramic paintings, often in gouache. The subjects were, as with his father, often military, and also included the French revolution.
BLEKER, Gerrit Claesz BLEKER, Gerrit Claesz 
Dutch painter (active 1625-1656 in Haarlem)
BLES, Herri met de BLES, Herri met de 
Flemish Northern Renaissance Painter, ca.1510-1550 Flemish painter. Both van Mander and Lampsonius recorded Bouvines as his birthplace, although Guicciardini gave it as Dinant. The identification of Herri met de Bles with Herry de Patinir, who was a master of the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1535, is generally accepted. He may have been related to Joachim Patinir, possibly a nephew. In the Pictorum aliquot celebrium Germaniae Inferioris effigies (Antwerp, 1572) of Domenicus Lampsonius, Henricus Blesius Bovinati pictori is portrayed aged 40, sporting the type of clothing and beard that were fashionable in 1550.
BLOEMAERT, Abraham BLOEMAERT, Abraham 
Dutch Mannerist Painter, ca.1564-1651 Abraham Bloemaert (1566, Gorinchem - January 27, 1651, Utrecht), was a Dutch painter and printmaker in etching and engraving. Bloemaert was the son of an architect, who moved his family to Utrecht in 1575, where Abraham was first a pupil of Gerrit Splinter (pupil of Frans Floris) and of Joos de Beer. He then spent three years in Paris, studying under several masters, and on his return to his native country received further training from Hieronymus Francken. In 1591 he went to Amsterdam, and four years later settled finally at Utrecht, where he became dean of the Guild of St. Luke. He excelled more as a colourist than as a draughtsman, was extremely productive, and painted and etched historical and allegorical pictures, landscapes, still-life, animal pictures and flower pieces. Among his pupils are his four sons, Hendrick, Frederick, Cornelis and Adriaan (all of whom achieved considerable reputation as painters or engravers), the two Honthorsts, Ferdinand Bol and Jacob Gerritsz Cuyp.
BLONDEEL, Lanceloot BLONDEEL, Lanceloot 
Flemish Northern Renaissance Painter, 1498-1561 South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman, designer, architect, civil engineer, cartographer and engraver. He is said to have trained as a bricklayer, and the trowel he used to add as his housemark next to his monogram LAB testifies to this and to his pretensions as an architectural designer. In 1519 he was registered as a master painter in the Bruges Guild of St Luke, where he chose as his speciality painting on canvas. The following year he collaborated with the little-known painter Willem Cornu in designing and executing 12 scenes for the Triumphal Entry of Emperor Charles V into Bruges. From then onwards Blondeel received regular commissions, mainly as a designer and organizer. Records of legal actions show that he was sometimes late with commissions; he took seven years to execute a Last Judgement ordered in 1540 for the council chamber at Blankenberge, and in 1545 the Guild of St Luke summoned him for his failure to supply their guild banner on time. Blondeel was married to Kathelyne, sister of the wood-carver Michiel Scerrier; of the two daughters of this marriage, the eldest, Maria, married the tapestry-weaver Andries Hansins before 1542 and the younger, Anna, married Blondeel's pupil, the painter Pieter Pourbus, before 1545.
BLOOT, Pieter de BLOOT, Pieter de 
Dutch painter (b. 1601, Rotterdam, d. 1658, Rotterdam)
blunck blunck 
1799-1853
Blythe David Gilmour Blythe David Gilmour 
American Painter, 1815-1865 He began his career as an itinerant portrait painter in the early 1840s and became one of the leading satirical artists in America by the beginning of the Civil War. Self-taught, from 1840 to 1850 he worked in East Liverpool, OH, and Uniontown, PA, and nearby towns and villages, painting rather stiff likenesses of the local gentry. He also carved a monumental polychrome wooden statue of Marie-Joseph, Marquis de Lafayette for the Uniontown courthouse and painted a landscape panorama of the Allegheny mountains, which he took on tour through Maryland, Pennsylvania and Ohio.
BOCCACCINO, Boccaccio BOCCACCINO, Boccaccio 
Italian painter, Cremonese school (b. before 1466, Ferrara, d. 1524/25, Cremona) He is first recorded in 1493 in Genoa, where he contracted to paint the high altarpiece (untraced) for S Maria della Consolazione. In 1497 he was extracted from prison in Milan by the agent of Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, and worked for the Duke in Ferrara until 1500. Perhaps as a consequence of having killed his common-law wife he then left, presumably for Venice, where he is recorded as residing in 1505. A fresco in Cremona Cathedral is dated 1506.
BOCCACCINO, Camillo BOCCACCINO, Camillo 
Italian painter, Cremonese school (b. 1504/5, Cremona, d. 1546, Cremona) Camillo Boccaccino (c. 1504 - 1546) was an Italian painter of the Renaissance period, active mainly in Cremona and regions of Lombardy. He was the son and pupil of the painter Boccaccio Boccaccino. He was known to Gian Paolo Lomazzo and Giorgio Vasari. He painted the four evangelists (1537) in the niches of the cupola of San Sigismondo at Cremona.
Boccaccio Boccaccino Boccaccio Boccaccino 
(c. 1467 - c. 1525) was a painter of the early Italian Renaissance, belonging to the Emilian school. He is profiled in Vasari's Le Vite delle pie eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori (or, in English, Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects). He was born in Ferrara and studied there, probably under Domenico Panetti. Few facts of his life are known. His principal artistic activity was in Venice, Ferrara, and especially in Cremona, where he founded a school in which Garofalo was a pupil. His most celebrated achievement is the frescoes in the Cathedral of Cremona (1506-1519) representing the Birth of the Virgin and some subjects from her life. His position there was taken over by Altobello Melone. His remaining works, which include the Marriage of Saint Catherine (Accademia), the Virgin and Child with Four Saints (Venice, San Giuliano), the Virgin and Two Saints (Cremona, San Quirilo), and the Holy Family (Paris, Louvre), are considered by Lanzi remarkable for richness of drapery, variety of color, spirit and grace of attitude, and harmony of landscape. Several works formerly attributed to Pietro Perugino, Pinturicchio, and Garofalo are now ascribed to Boccaccino. His son and pupil Camillo Boccaccino (1501-46) was a painter at Cremona.
BOCCATI, Giovanni BOCCATI, Giovanni 
Italian Painter, ca.1420-1487
BOEL, Pieter BOEL, Pieter 
Flemish Baroque Era Painter, 1622-1674 Flemish painter, draughtsman and etcher. He came from an artistic family: his father Jan Boel (1592-1640), was an engraver, publisher and art dealer; his uncle Quirin Boel I was an engraver; and his brother Quirin Boel II (1620-40) was also a printmaker. Pieter was probably apprenticed in Antwerp to Jan Fyt, but may have studied previously with Frans Snyders. He then went to Italy, probably visiting Rome and Genoa, where he is supposed to have stayed with Cornelis de Wael. None of Boel's work from this period is known. In 1650 he became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke (having given his first name as Jan, not Pieter). His marriage to Maria Blanckaert took place at about the same time. Boel dated only a few of his paintings, making it difficult to establish a chronology. He is best known for his hunting scenes, some of which clearly show his debt to Snyders, but the dominant influence on his work was that of Fyt, particularly evident in his emphatic brushwork. However, Boel was more restrained both in his treatment and in his handling of outline. He also borrowed the theme of open-air hunting still-lifes (e.g. Feathered Game with Three Dogs; Madrid, Prado) from Fyt, but he painted other subjects as well, such as the monumental Vanitas Still-life (e.g. 1633; Lille, Mus. B.-A.).
BOELEMA DE STOMME, Maerten BOELEMA DE STOMME, Maerten 
Dutch painter (active 1642-1664 in Haarlem)
Bogdan Villevalde Bogdan Villevalde 
painted Feat of Cavalry Regiment at the battle of Austerlitz in 1805.
Bohumil Kubista Bohumil Kubista 
(1884 - 1918) was a Czech painter and art critic, one of the founders of Czech modern painting. He studied at the School of Applied Arts in Prague, but left in 1906 to study at the Reale Istituto di Belle Arti in Florence. He, Emil Filla, Antonin Prochezka, and five others founded Osma (The Eight), an Expressionist-oriented group of artists. Kubišta came to his individual expression gradually, at first he was influenced by the work of Vincent van Gogh and Paul Cezanne. He educated himself in in philosophy and optics, and studied colour and the geometrical construction of painting. Kubišta, like several other Czech artists of his generation, was strongly affected by the 1905 Edvard Munch exhibition in Prague. Together with Emil Filla he established the artistic group Osma in 1907. He worked in an Expressionist style until 1910, and exchanged ideas with German painters in Die Bre - ke. He also developed visual ideas learned from the work of Cezanne. His later style (approximately from 1911) was strongly influenced by cubism and expressionism. Expressionist elements, particularly his use of color but also his subject matter, immediately distinguish Kubištaes cubist work from that of founding Paris Cubists Picasso and Braque. He studied color theory, analyzing the harmonic and compositional principles of painters such as El Greco, Eugene Delacroix, Vincent van Gogh, and Edvard Munch. He also paid close attention to mathematical and geometric principles. Around 1911, he became acquainted with Jan Zrzavý and the artistic group Sursum. He died prematurely during the global 1918 flu pandemic which ravaged Europe after the First World War.
BOL, Ferdinand BOL, Ferdinand 
Dutch Baroque Era Painter, 1616-1680 Ferdinand was born in Dordrecht as the son of a surgeon, Balthasar Bol.[2] Ferdinand Bol was first an apprentice of Jacob Cuyp in his hometown and/or of Abraham Bloemaert in Utrecht. After 1630 he studied with Rembrandt, living in his house in Sint Antoniesbreestraat, then a fashionable street and area for painters, jewellers, architects, and many Flemish and Jewish immigrants.[3] In 1641 Bol started his own studio. In 1652 he became a burgher of Amsterdam, and in 1653 he married Elisabeth Dell, whose father held positions with the Admiralty of Amsterdam and the wine merchants' guild, both institutions that later gave commissions to the artist. Within a few years (1655) he became the head of the guild and received orders to deliver two chimney pieces for rooms in the new town hall designed by Jacob van Campen, and four more for the Admiralty of Amsterdam. Portrait of a Woman Dressed as a Huntress by Ferdinand Bol, courtesy Figge Art MuseumBy this time Bol was a popular and successful painter. His palette had lightened, his figures possessed greater elegance, and by the middle of the decade he was receiving more official commissions than any other artist in Amsterdam.[4] Godfrey Kneller was his pupil.[5] Bol delivered four paintings for the two mansions of the brothers Trip, originally also from Dordrecht.[6] Bol's first wife died 1660. In 1669 Bol married for the second time to Anna van Arckel, widow of the treasurer of the Admiralty, and apparently retired from painting at that point in his life.[7]In 1672 the couple moved to Keizersgracht 472, then a newly designed part of the city, and now the Museum van Loon. Bol served as a governor in a Home for Lepers. Bol died a few weeks after his wife, on Herengracht, where his son, a lawyer, lived. Probably his best known painting is a portrait of Elisabeth Bas, the wife of the naval officer Joachim Swartenhondt and an innkeeper near the Dam square. This and many other of his paintings would in the 19th century be falsely attributed to Rembrandt.
BOL, Hans BOL, Hans 
Flemish Northern Renaissance Painter, 1534-1593 Hans Bol (1534?C1593), Flemish artist, received his early training from his two uncles who were also painters. He then was the apprentice to a Mechelen watercolorist and tempera painter at the age of fourteen. Because Bol??s watercolors became so widely reproduced, he began creating miniatures on parchment. The technique earned him many international clients and a good income. In addition, Bol also produced several oil paintings, illuminated manuscripts, drawings, and engravings. He preferred to create landscapes, mythological, allegorical and biblical scenes, and genre paintings.
BOLLONGIER, Hans BOLLONGIER, Hans 
Dutch painter, Haarlem school (b. ca. 1600, Haarlem, d. ca. 1675, Haarlem) Hans Gillisz. Bollongier or Boulenger (Haarlem, 1600-idem, 1645) was a still life Dutch painter.
BOLTRAFFIO, Giovanni Antonio BOLTRAFFIO, Giovanni Antonio 
Italian High Renaissance Painter, ca.1466-1516 Italian painter and draughtsman. A pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, he was active mainly in Milan and was particularly noted as a portrait painter.
Bon Boullogne Bon Boullogne 
(bapt. February 22, 1649 - May 17, 1717) was a French painter. Boullogne was born in Paris, a son of the painter Louis Boullogne;[1] he was regarded as the most gifted of his children. He took his first lessons from his father, whom he is thought to have assisted in the Grande Galerie of the Louvre. Through his father, who presented a half-length figure of St John by Bon to Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Contrôleur General des Finances, he was sent to the Academie de France in Rome as a Pensionnaire du Roi. In this capacity, he made copies of famous works, in particular some frescoes by Raphael in the Vatican Loggie, intended for reproduction as Gobelins tapestries. The period he then spent in Lombardy helped to complete his training. He studied the work of Antonio da Correggio and the Annibale Carracci, as well as Guido Reni, Domenichino and Francesco Albani. Bones painting, especially the mythological work, shows great affinities with the work of the Bolognese school, which was also to be found in the royal collections. Also of influence to Bon was Nordic art, as demonstrated in his female portraits framed by plant like motifs, a device taken up by his pupil Robert Tournieres. He died in Paris.
Bonaguida, Pacino di Bonaguida, Pacino di 
Italian, active 1303-1330
Bonaventura Peeters Bonaventura Peeters 
(Antwerp, 23 July 1614 - Hoboken (Antwerp), 25 July 1652) was a Flemish Baroque painter who specialized in seascapes and shipwrecks, known as Zeekens (small seascapes). Peeters, brother of the seascape painters Jan Peeters I, Gillis Peeters, and Catharina Peeters, learned to paint from his father, who became a master in Antwerp's guild of St. Luke in 1607 - 1608, and his earlier works are related to the tonal phase of Dutch landscape painting. Later paintings, however, reflect the stronger colors of Italianate classicism. This shift follows the general changes in artistic style at the time. Like his brother Jan, dramatic shipwrecks with dark billowy clouds, form a significant part of his oeuvre, as do serene ports and "portraits" of ships.Also, while many of Peeters's paintings reflect actual locations, and he may have even travelled along the coast of Scandinavia, his many views of far-away Mediterranean and Middle Eastern ports reflect a growing taste for the exotic and are probably inspired from fantasy and from prints. This tradition developed simultaneously in Flemish painting and in Dutch Golden Age painting, with many artists, including Peeters, working in both Antwerp and in the Dutch Republic.
BONE, Henry BONE, Henry 
British, 1755-1834,Cornish enamel painter, was born at Truro. He was much employed by London jewellers for small designs in enamel, before his merits as an artist were well known to the public. In 1800 the beauty of his pieces attracted the notice of the Royal Academy, of which he was then admitted as an associate; in 1811 he was made an academician. Up to 1831 he executed many beautiful miniature pieces of much larger size than had been attempted before in England; among these his eighty-five portraits of the time of Queen Elizabeth, of different sizes, from 5 by 4 to 13 by 8 in. are most admired. They were disposed of by public sale after his death. His Bacchus and Ariadne, after Titian, painted on a plate, brought the great price of 2200 guineas. He had 2 sons, who were also notable enamallists: Henry Pierce Bone & Robert Trewick Bone.
BONFIGLI, Benedetto BONFIGLI, Benedetto 
Italian painter, Umbrian school (b. ca. 1420, Perugia, d. 1496, Perugia) Benedetto Bonfigli (c. 1420?CJuly 8, 1496) was an Italian painter of the Quattrocento born in Perugia, and active around Umbria. He is also known as Buonfiglio. He was the teacher of the painter Pietro Perugino. His earliest work was an ' Annunciation,' originally in the Orfanelli at Perugia. His masterpiece is a series of frescoes in the Palazzo del Consiglio in the same city, which represent the Lives of St. Louis of Toulouse and St. Herculanus; they were begun in 1454 and not finished in 1496, in which year Bonfigli's will is dated. An Adoration of the Magi (c. 1460) was painted for San Domenico. A Banner (gonfalone) was painted in 1465 for the brotherhood of San Bernardino, and representing the deeds of their patron saint; another Gonfalone painted for the brotherhood of San Fiorenzo in 1476, in honor of the Virgin, who had been prayed to intercede for the cessation of the plague. He painted a Virgin of Mercy' (1478) for the church of the Commenda di Santa Croce; and several others in and around Perugia. He was much influenced by Domenico Veneziano and Pietro della Francesca. He also painted frescoes of Sant Ercolano and San Ludovico (1454) for the Palazzo del Consiglio. He died in Perugia.
Bonifacio Bembo Bonifacio Bembo 
Italian Early Renaissance Painter, active 1444-1477
Bonifacio de Pitati Bonifacio de Pitati 
painted Sacra Conversazione in 1515
BONIFACIO VERONESE BONIFACIO VERONESE 
Italian Painter, ca.1487-1553
Bonnard, Pierre 
French, 1867-1947 French painter and printmaker. He studied at the Academie Julian and the École des Beaux-Arts (1888 C 89). In the 1890s he became a leading member of the Nabis group and came under the influence of Art Nouveau and Japanese prints. With his friend Édouard Vuillard, he developed the intimate domestic interior scene, a genre known as Intimism, depicting fashionable Parisian life in the years before World War I. He also produced still lifes, self-portraits, seascapes, and large-scale decorative paintings. In 1910 he discovered the south of France and began a series of luminous landscapes of the Mediterranean region. He was fascinated by perspective, which he employed in paintings such as The Dining Room (1913). From the 1920s he specialized in landscapes, interiors, views of gardens, and bathing nudes. He produced illustrations for the celebrated journal Revue blanche and decorative pages for Paul Verlaine's book of poetry Parallelement (1900).
Bonnat, LEon Bonnat, LEon 
French, 1833-1922.French portrait and historical painter. He is best known for his portraits of famous men, including Thiers, Victor Hugo, and Dumas fils. Bonnat is represented in the Metropolitan Museum.
BONSIGNORI, Francesco BONSIGNORI, Francesco 
Italian painter, Veronese school (b. 1455, Verona, d. 1519, Caldiero) Italian painter. His father, Albertus Bonsignori, was reputedly an amateur painter; and besides Francesco, the oldest and most talented of his children, three other sons, including Bernardino (c. 1476-c. 1520) and Girolamo (b c. 1479), are also recorded as painters. Barely 20 paintings and fewer than a dozen drawings have been attributed to Francesco Bonsignori.
BONZI, Pietro Paolo BONZI, Pietro Paolo 
ca. 1576, Cortona, d. 1636, Roma Pietro Paolo Bonzi (c. 1576-1636) also known as il Gobbo dei Carracci (hunchback of the Carracci) or il Gobbo dei Frutti (of fruits), was an Italian painter, best known for his landscapes and still-lifes. he was born in Cortona, he was part of the circle of Annibale Carracci and Domenichino, and trained under Giovanni Battista Viola in Rome. In Rome, he worked for Cardinal Pier Paolo Crescenzi in Rome. There are only two still-life paintings known with his signature; he thus forms one of the first Italian artists in Rome working in this style. The Giustiniani inventories of 1638 cite paintings by Bonzi and other still-lifes are documented in the 1670 inventory of Principe Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna's collection. He also worked in fresco and in 1622-23 worked with Pietro da Cortona on the ceiling of a gallery in the Palazzo Mattei di Giove. Other commissions cited by Baglione include his work in the Palazzo Pallavicini-Rospigliosi.
BORDONE, Paris BORDONE, Paris 
Italian High Renaissance Painter, 1500-1571 Bordone was born at Treviso, but had moved to Venice by late adolescence. He apprenticed briefly and unhappily (according to Vasari) with Titian. Vasari may have met the elder Bordone. From the 1520s, we have works by Bordone including the Holy Family in Florence, Sacra Conversazione with Donor (Glasgow), and Holy Family with St. Catherine (Hermitage Museum). The St. Ambrose and a Donor (1523) is now in Brera. In 1525-6, Bordone painted an altarpiece for the church of S. Agostino in Crema, a Madonna with St. Christopher and St George (now in the Palazzo Tadini collection at Lovere). A second altarpiece, Pentecost, is now in Brera gallery. In 1534-5, he painted his large-scale masterpiece for the Scuola di San Marco a canvas of the Fisherman delivering the Marriage Ring of Venice to the Doge (Accademia). However, when this latter painting is compared to the near-contemoporary, and structurally similar, Presentation of the Virgin, Bordone's limitations, his use of superior perspective, which creates dwarfed distant perspectives, and limited coloration relative to the brilliant tints of Titian. Bordone is best at his smaller cabinet pieces, showing half-figures, semi-undressed men and women from mythology or religious stories in a muscular interaction despite the crowded space.
bores bores 
BORGIANNI, Orazio BORGIANNI, Orazio 
Italian Baroque Era Painter, 1578-1616 Orazio Borgianni (c. 1575 - buried 15 January 1616) was an Italian painter and etcher of the Mannerist and early-baroque periods. He was the stepbrother of the sculptor and architect Giulio Lasso. Borgianni was born in Rome, where he was documented in February 1604. He was instructed in the art of painting by his brother, Giulio Borgiani, called Scalzo. The patronage by Philip II of Spain induced him to visit that Spain, where he signed an inventory in January 1605. He returned to Rome from Spain after April 1605 at the height of his career, and most of the work of his maturity was carried out 1605-16. In Spain, he signed a petition to begin an Italianate academy of painting and executed a series of nine paintings for the Convento de Portacoeli, Valladolid, where they remain. From his time in Spain, there remain two of his paintings in the Prado Museum: St Christopher and the Stigmatization of St Francis. On his return to Rome he was patronized by the Spanish ambassador, for whom he painted several pictures, and he was also employed in painting for the churches. He painted as late as 1630. after which he returned to Spain. He frescoed in the apse of the church of San Silvestro in Capite in Rome, a Martyrdom of S.Stefano I and a Messengers of Constantine call on Saint Silvestro (1610). His canvas of San Carlo Borromeo in the church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1612) is an eclectic and emotive synthesis of both Carracci and tenebrist styles. The influence of Caravaggio is also evident in a painting of the same saint (1616) now in the Hermitage Museum. A lively self-portrait of an earnest, somewhat foppish Borgianni is in the Rome Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica.
BORGOGNONE, Ambrogio BORGOGNONE, Ambrogio 
Italian painter, Milanese school (b. ca. 1453, Fossano, d.1523).
Boris Kustodiev Boris Kustodiev 
1878-1927 Russian Boris Kustodiev Galleries The Russian Revolution of 1905, which shook the foundations of society, evoked a vivid response in the artist's soul. He contributed to the satirical journals Zhupel (Bugbear) and Adskaya Pochta (Hell??s Mail). At that time, he first met the artists of Mir Iskusstva (World of Art), a group of innovative Russian artists. He joined their association in 1910 and subsequently took part in all their exhibitions. In 1905, Kustodiev first turned to book illustrating, a genre in which he worked throughout his entire life. He illustrated many works of classical Russian literature, including Nikolai Gogol's Dead Souls, The Carriage, and The Overcoat; Mikhail Lermontov's The Lay of Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich, His Young Oprichnik and the Stouthearted Merchant Kalashnikov; and Leo Tolstoy's How the Devil Stole the Peasants Hunk of Bread and The Candle. In 1909, he was elected into Imperial Academy of Arts. He continued to work intensively, but a grave illness??tuberculosis of the spine??required urgent attention. On the advice of his doctors he went to Switzerland, where he spent a year undergoing treatment in a private clinic. He pined for his distant homeland, and Russian themes continued to provide the basic material for the works he painted during that year. In 1918, he painted The Merchant's Wife, which became the most famous of his paintings. The Merchant's Wife, (1918).In 1916, he became paraplegic. "Now my whole world is my room", he wrote. His ability to remain joyful and lively despite his paralysis amazed others. His colourful paintings and joyful genre pieces do not reveal his physical suffering, and on the contrary give the impression of a carefree and cheerful life. His Pancake Tuesday/Maslenitsa (1916) and Fontanka (1916) are all painted from his memories. He meticulously restores his own childhood in the busy city on the Volga banks. In the first years after the Russian Revolution of 1917 the artist worked with great inspiration in various fields. Contemporary themes became the basis for his work, being embodied in drawings for calendars and book covers, and in illustrations and sketches of street decorations. His covers for the journals The Red Cornfield and Red Panorama attracted attention because of their vividness and the sharpness of their subject matter. Kustodiev also worked in lithography, illustrating works by Nekrasov. His illustrations for Leskov's stories The Darner and Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District were landmarks in the history of Russian book designing, so well did they correspond to the literary images.
BORRASSA, Lluis BORRASSA, Lluis 
Spanish Gothic Era Painter, 1350-1424
BORSSUM, Anthonie van BORSSUM, Anthonie van 
Dutch painter (b. 1630/31, Amsterdam, d. 1677, Amsterdam)
BOSCH, Hieronymus BOSCH, Hieronymus 
Netherlandish Northern Renaissance Painter, ca.1450-1516 Bosch produced several triptychs. Among his most famous is The Garden of Earthly Delights. This painting depicts paradise with Adam and Eve and many wondrous animals on the left panel, the earthly delights with numerous nude figures and tremendous fruit and birds on the middle panel, and hell with depictions of fantastic punishments of the various types of sinners on the right panel. When the exterior panels are closed the viewer can see, painted in grisaille, God creating the Earth. These paintings have a rough surface from the application of paint; this contrasts with the traditional Flemish style of paintings, where the smooth surface attempts to hide the fact that the painting is man-made. Bosch never dated his paintings and may have signed only some of them (other signatures are certainly not his). Fewer than 25 paintings remain today that can be attributed to him. Philip II of Spain acquired many of Bosch's paintings after the painter's death; as a result, the Prado Museum in Madrid now owns several of his works, including The Garden of Earthly Delights.
BOSSCHAERT, Ambrosius the Elder BOSSCHAERT, Ambrosius the Elder 
Dutch Baroque Era Painter, 1573-1621 Painter and dealer. He left Antwerp with his parents c. 1587 because as Protestants they were vulnerable to religious persecution; the family moved to Middelburg, where in 1593 Ambrosius became a member of the Guild of St Luke, of which he served as Dean on several occasions (1597, 1598, 1603, 1604, 1612 and 1613). In 1604 he married Maria van der Ast, the sister of Balthasar van der Ast who later became his pupil and possible collaborator. Bosschaert bought a house in Middelburg in 1611. There are flower-pieces by Bosschaert that are signed (with a monogram) and dated between 1605 and 1621, though there were two periods of artistic inactivity, in 1611-13 and 1615-16, when he was probably more active as a dealer in the art of both Dutch and foreign artists (e.g. Veronese and Georg Flegel). He was recorded in Bergen-op-Zoom in 1615 and became a citizen of Utrecht in 1616, where his name appears in the register of the Utrecht Guild of St Luke for the same year. In 1619 he was involved in a court case in Breda, where he lived from that year. He died during a journey to The Hague.
BOSSCHAERT, Jan-Baptist BOSSCHAERT, Jan-Baptist 
Flemish painter (1667-1746)
BOSSCHAERT, Johannes BOSSCHAERT, Johannes 
Flemish painter (b. ca. 1610, Middelburg, d. ca. 1650, Utrecht) was a member of the Bosschaert family of still life painters. He was the second son of Ambrosius Bosschaert. Little is known about his life, including the date of his death.

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